Job analysis function plays a vital role in human resource management. Every organization needs a good workforce for accomplishing organizational goals and objectives therefore, as a primary function JA provides information about the job as well as the job holder. This chapter includes definitions of Job analysis, the importance, and the process of job analysis.
When considering the definition of job analysis, basically, it is a process that collects and analyzes information about a particular job and the job holder. This function creates a collection of information, which is very useful to do other functions in HRM. Job analysis not only focuses on the job but also focuses on the job holder. The job analyst in the organization coordinates this function.
Importance of job analysis
Job analysis is a collection of information that is related to job and job incumbent. This collected information is very useful to do other HRM functions, such as human resource planning, recruitment, selection, induction, training & development, performance evaluation, etc. This is the basic foundation for the rest of the other functions.
Process of job analysis
There are some steps can be represented for the job analysis
- Get an idea about the organization.
- Identify jobs to analyze.
- Collect data to analyze.
- Create a job description.
- Create job specifications.
(1).Get an idea about the organization
Before start the job analysis process, the job analyst firstly identifies the requirements what the organization looking for. then get an idea to do the process by using organizational elements such as mission, objectives, strategies, inputs, outputs, strategic plans and annual reports.
(2).Identify jobs to analyze
After doing the organizational analysis, job analyst starts to identify what type of employees are needed for the organization.
Organizations use several methods to collect data for job analysis. Using a method or using more than one method depends on organizational requirements.
The methods are as follows
- Observation method
- Employees’ log/diary
- Jury of experts
- Job psychographic method
- Motion study method
In the observation method, the performance of the worker is guided by the job analyst, and record to describe duties and tasks. This recorded information is very useful to job analysts and HR professionals to take suitable decisions.
Job analyst conducts interviews with job incumbents, their supervisors, HR professionals, or other knowledgeable people. This method is the most used data collection method for job analysis. Organization get several advantages by using the interview as a data collection method
- By using interviews, the job analyst or HR professional can explain unclear questions.
- It allows describing the aim of analysis and its uses.
- Ability to exchange views and ideas.
- Easy way to identify the candidate’s personality.
- Useful to solve labor problems.
Also this method has some disadvantages
- Conducting an interview is time-consuming.
- It is very costly.
- Sometimes both interviewer and interviewee pay less attention.
Jury of experts
In this method, the information is collected from experts. They may be a supervisor, long time employee, professionals, or a senior job incumbent. The experts have so many experiences about the job, job environment, duties & responsibilities. Therefore the job analyst can collect so much information for the job analysis process.
In this method the employee/job incumbent record and describe task and duties, responsibilities, and other related things in a diary on a daily basis.
(4).Create job description
The job description is an informative statement that describes a particular job. This document includes some job requirements, such as duties & responsibilities, job title, working hours, purpose, and other requirements. This helps to attract the right candidates for a specific job. This document is alternatively called a position description.
(5).Create job specification
The job specification is a document that describes the requirements a candidate needs to perform a job position. This statement includes professional qualifications, educational qualifications, experience, communication skills, and other personal skills related to a particular job. This also called job holder specification or person specification.
Difference between JD and JS
The job description explains a job whereas a job specification describes requirements that an individual need to perform the job.
JD is a representation of job characteristics and JS is a representation of personal characteristics
Job description includes tasks, duties, responsibilities, working hours, job policies, and other things related to the job, whereas job specification includes educational qualifications, language skills, experience, and professional skills.
- As a primary function Job analysis plays a vital role in human resource management.
- JA is a process that collects and analyzes information about a particular job and the job holder.
- To processing other HRM functions, Job Analysis is very important for the organization.
- (1)Get an idea about the organization, (2) Identify jobs to analyze, (3) Collect data for analysis, (4)Create job description, (5)Create job specification are the steps in the Job analysis process.
- To do the JA process, the organization follows some data collection methods such as Observation method, Interview, Questionnaire, Employees’ log/diary, Jury of experts, Job psychographic method, and Motion study method
- The job description/position description can be referred to as an informative statement that describes a particular job.
- The job specification/person specification is a document that describes the requirements a candidate needs to perform a job position.